that - those

that - those
That and those are used in a number of different ways when you are referring to people, things, events, or periods of time. They can both be used as determiners or pronouns. Those is the plural form of that.
referring back
You can use that or those to refer to people, things, or events which have already been mentioned or which are already known about.

I knew that meeting would be difficult.

`Did you see him?'—`No.'—`That's a pity.'

Not all crimes are committed for those reasons.

One problem is you're going to get oxides of nitrogen, but one can remove those, I think.

things you can see
You can also use that or those to refer to people or things that you can see but that are not close to you.

Look at that bird!

That's a strong piece of furniture.

Don't be afraid of those people.

I'll put those in the cupboard.

'that' used to refer to a person
However, you do not usually use that as a pronoun to refer to a person. You only use it when you are identifying someone or asking about their identity.

`Who's the woman with the handkerchief?' —-`That's my wife.'

Who's that?

For information on the way people use that when telephoning, see entry at ↑ Telephoning.
saying when something happened
When you have been describing an event, you can use that with a word like `day', `morning', or `afternoon' to indicate that something else happened during the same day.

There were no services that day, and the church was empty.

Paula had been shopping in Sapele that morning.

You can also use that with `week', `month', or `year' to indicate that something happened during the same week, month, or year.

There was a lot of extra work to do that week.

Later that month 11,000 attended another party at Maidenhead.

talking about a part of something
When you are talking about a particular part of a place or thing, you can use that instead of `the' in front of words like `part'. This is a rather formal use.

...that part of the world which forms the immediate environment.

Similarly, you can use those instead of `the' in front of a plural noun to talk about a group of people or things which is part of a larger group.

Students should write off to those bodies which provide awards.

...those firms with the most progressive policies.

Those can be used in a similar way as a pronoun.

Many were finding it difficult to make ends meet, especially those with young children.

'this' and 'these'
This and these are used in some similar ways to that and those. For an explanation of the differences, see entry at ↑ this - that.

Useful english dictionary. 2012.

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